Brief summary of the 95 theses

Five Hundred Years of Martin Luther
Contents:
  1. Breadcrumb
  2. The 95 Theses
  3. What are the 95 Theses of Martin Luther? | quibibmebegab.tk
  4. First Principles of the Reformation or the Ninety-five Theses and the Three Primary Works

Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self that is, true inner repentance , namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment.

If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept Mt In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.

The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.

Breadcrumb

Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.


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Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.

Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.

As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.

The 95 Theses

If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.

The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.

They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone. Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.

The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers. Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.

They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said Thesis 6 , the proclamation of the divine remission.

It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.

Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better.

Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.

The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. Today universities need to balance general and specialist subjects. Today, universities need to be reformed to ensure that unique identities are not lost in the push for institutionalisation and standardisation Moon, In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education.

Higher education today needs an estate strategy that is based as much on people and their needs as buildings.


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  6. The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church. Bologna's special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum status is based on its autonomy, awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.

    Autonomy and independence today means that universities can charge fees to students and this power needs to be balanced with the need for accountability and quality service.

    What are the 95 Theses of Martin Luther? | quibibmebegab.tk

    HEIs today can be driven by fee income causing tensions over numbers e. Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into 'Nationes', divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes. Today, students have relatively little power. Why are they not Governors?

    The 95 Theses

    In Europe, young men proceeded to university when they had completed their study of the trivium—the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic or logic—and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Today, students are admitted with a diversity of qualifications and levels of language. This can cause tension over resources needed to support students with additional learning needs e. All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions.

    Today, there is a greater emphasis on science, technology and business. However, this can be at the expense of the arts, social sciences and humanities including sustainability. Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends.

    Today the most difficult problems such as climate change are not prioritised by most universities. The emergence of humanism was essential to the understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. Today humanities can be placed under pressure for resources vs.

    The rediscovery of Aristotle's works—more than pages of it would eventually be translated —fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had already begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these works represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Today, e-books and MOOCs are providing the potential for wider access to more resources; but are students accessing them and fully learning from the vast range of electronic resources?

    The process and practice of inquiry was an attempt to reconcile the thoughts of Greek antiquity, and especially ideas related to understanding the natural world, with those of the church. Today, the natural world is under severe threat and an alarming proportion of students can be cynical about studying the environment.

    This became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. Today, biblical passages tend only to be studied in theology or other similar classes.

    First Principles of the Reformation or the Ninety-five Theses and the Three Primary Works

    And highlighting biblical passages can be regarded as not academic enough for publication e. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern primarily Germany, France and Great Britain and southern universities primarily Italy did have many elements in common.

    Today there is a much wider divide between the top universities e.